3 Types Of Ulcers (Peptic) -Symptoms, Causes Treatment

Various types of ulcers have become a common problem for many people nowadays.  It is very distressing to see so many people these days who aren’t developed that much aware of this.  In many cases, if not treated, this disease can lead to complications like cancer.  So awareness and proper treatment is the only way to solve this problem.  Below is detailed information about ulcers that you will benefit from knowing.

Common Types Of Ulcers:

These days anyone can face different types of ulcers. So we need to know more about this disease to prevent ulcer symptoms and its complications. When you know about ulcers, you will be relieved from their severity, and the chances of complete recovery will increase with proper treatment. Ulcers are usually of different types. Due to our way of life, food, and lifestyle, each person has different types of ulcers. Types of ulcers are –

  1. Peptic ulcers
  2. Esophageal ulcers
  3. Arterial ulcers 
  4. Diabetic foot ulcers 
  5. Venous ulcers
  6. Genital ulcers
  7. Mouth ulcers

What is Peptic Ulcer?

Peptic ulcer is a type of ulcers that is usually caused by acid in the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, and small intestine.  It can be said that many people are affected by this health problem. Peptic ulcers can be caused by a variety of lifestyles and habits, including smoking, drinking alcohol, eating spicy & oily food and not chewing food properly, stress, and obesity.

Types Of Ulcers (Peptic):

There are 3 types of ulcers which are called Peptic ulcer…

  1. A gastric ulcer occurs in the lining of the stomach. 
  2. Esophageal ulcers occur in the lining of the esophagus or esophagus.
  3. A duodenal ulcer which is an ulcer on the surface of the small intestine (known as the duodenum).

Symptoms Of Peptic Ulcers:

Peptic Ulcer has different symptoms.  But the most common symptoms that patients suffer from are –

  1. Burning in chest
  2. Symptoms of pain from above the navel to the chest
  3. Pain level can be severe sometimes the patient wakes up due to severe pain
  4. Loss of appetite
  5. Vomiting
  6. Black stools
  7. Weight loss without any reason
  8. Chest pain.

1. Gastric Ulcer:

Gastric ulcers are a type of ulcer that affects the lining of the stomach. Gastric ulcers occur when the lining of the stomach is exposed to acid for a long time. They can be caused by taking too many painkillers, alcohol, or NSAIDs. Stomach ulcers are known as gastric ulcers.

Symptoms of gastric Ulcers:

Basically, the stomach ulcer has symptoms like a burning sensation in the tummy or gnawing pain. Sometimes it can’t hurt at all in the center of the tummy (abdomen). Many people may feel some other symptoms, such as constipation or dark, sticky, or loose stool, indigestion, heartburn, and acid reflux, and feel sick.

2. Esophageal ulcers:

An esophagus ulcer is a sore in the esophagus, which can be caused by acid reflux, chronic heartburn, or other conditions.

The esophagus is a tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. The esophageal sphincter muscle at the bottom of the esophagus helps keep stomach acid from coming back up into your throat. If this muscle doesn’t work well and stomach acid goes up into your throat, an ulcer can form on the lining of your esophagus.

There are many reasons why someone may get an ulcer in their esophagus, including:

– Acid reflux – Chronic heartburn – Other causes include certain infections and large pills that get caught in the esophagus.

Symptoms of an esophageal ulcer:

The most common symptom that is faced is chest pain or (heartburn) which can be mild or severe. Other symptoms may include:

  • Painful swallowing
  • The pain is usually lessened by taking antacids
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Acid reflux heartburn or indigestion
  • Dry cough
  • Bleeding (bloody vomit
  • Dark sticky stool

3. Duodenal ulcer:

Duodenal ulcers are a type of stomach ulcer. This is because they form in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. A duodenal ulcer can be caused by a number of things. It can be caused by too much stomach acid, or by an infection in the gut.

The stomach needs to make acid to digest all the food properly and also to protect your intestine from germs. When stomach cells and duodenum make a barrier to protect themselves against this acid mucus barrier is damaged, and as a result, an ulcer can form. It can also be caused by an autoimmune disease like Crohn’s disease or celiac disease.

Symptoms of Duodenal ulcer:

If you have a duodenal ulcer, you may feel some discomforts like –

  • Have abdominal or stomach pain
  • Have to face indigestion problem
  • Constipation
  • Feeling full all the time and feel bloated after eating
  • Bloody or black stools
  • Vomiting or (nauseous)
  • Unexpected weight loss

How is Peptic Ulcer Diagnosed?

Ulcers can be diagnosed initially by looking at the patient’s history and symptoms. However, the disease can be confirmed by examination. The tests are:

  • Endoscopy
  • Upper GI X-ray, etc.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

The endoscopy examination is relatively difficult. But it is the most effective and reliable way to diagnose ulcers. Your doctor may advise doing an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) test. This is a very specific endoscopy exam to diagnose peptic ulcer disease and helps to diagnose the size, conditions, and location of the ulcers. An upper GI X-ray is usually done when cancer is suspected.

Treatment of Peptic Ulcers:

Treatment usually depends on the cause…

1. Antibiotic Medications:

If tests confirm that the ulcer is caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, combination therapy is used as a medication to kill the bacteria. Some drugs are like amoxicillin (Amoxil), tetracycline and levofloxacin, clarithromycin (Biaxin), metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax), etc.

To reduce stomach acid Dr may recommend these drugs include – antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor anti-ulcer drugs. This treatment may have some side effects. But that’s not much. A common side effect can be loose stools like diarrhea. It gets fixed in 1–2 days. But if the problem is more, you must talk to the doctor and stop the medicine. If the ulcer is not caused by Helicobacter pylori, then treatment with a proton pump inhibitor is started.

2. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs):

(PPIs) are very common medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in the lining of your stomach. It prevents further damage to the ulcer and heals naturally. Doctors have usually prescribed this medicine for 4 to 8 weeks.

3. H2-receptor antagonists:

H2 blockers are a very commonly used medicine that reduces the amount of acid made by your stomach. It is used in which conditions that are in demand to reduce acid reflux which causes heartburn. Although Most of the people who take H2 blockers do not develop any side effects sometimes some side effects can feel like diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, rashes, and tiredness. NHS says Ranitidine is one of the commonly widely used H2-receptor antagonists for treating stomach ulcers like PPIs.

4. Medications that Block Acid Production:

Proton pump inhibitors help reduce stomach acid by reducing the activity of acid-producing cell parts, but long-term use of these drugs has some harmful side effects.  For example, consuming high doses can increase your risk of hip, wrist, and spine fractures.  Therefore, medicines should be taken for a specific period of time and in a specific dose as per the doctor’s advice.  These medications include the over-the-counter acid blockers like omeprazole (Prilosec), rabeprazole (Aciphex), esomeprazole lansoprazole (Prevacid),  (Nexium), and pantoprazole (Protonix).

5. Antacids that Reduce Acid Production:

Medicines like antacids reduce stomach acid and maintain good acid balance in the stomach.  Your doctor may include antacids when prescribing your medication, although they are not used to treat your ulcers but can provide quick pain relief by reducing excess stomach acid.  Its main side effects may include constipation or diarrhea but only for a short time.

Medicines like antacids reduce stomach acid and maintain good acid balance in the stomach.  Your doctor may include antacids when prescribing your medication, although they are not used to treat your ulcers but can provide quick pain relief by reducing excess stomach acid.  Its main side effects may include constipation or diarrhea but only for a short time.

  Some medicines that protect the lining of your stomach and small intestines…

The Mayo Clinic recommends that in some cases, depending on the type of problem, your doctor may recommend medications called cytoprotective agents, which help protect the tissues that line your stomach and small intestine.  Medicines that are effective in making you feel comfortable are medicines like sucralfate (Carafate) and misoprostol (Cytotec).


Ulcer symptoms and complications increase over time if left untreated.  So if you have symptoms of an ulcer, get treatment quickly.  Complications include-

  • Perforation: Ulcers can lead to perforation of the stomach and duodenum, which is known as perforation. Perforation causes sudden, severe abdominal pain.
  • Internal Bleeding: Ulcers can cause spontaneous bleeding into organs.  It can cause anemia.  The patient may need to be hospitalized. Symptoms of internal bleeding may include dizziness, lightheadedness, black stools, etc.
  • Scar: If there is an ulcer for a long time, it can form a scar or hard tissue.  It makes it difficult to pass food through the esophagus.  Symptoms of scar tissue include vomiting, weight loss, etc.  Apart from this, symptoms such as bleeding with vomiting, tightening of the stomach, and sudden unbearable pain in the stomach can also be seen.  If such symptoms or complications occur, the patient must be taken to the hospital on an urgent basis.

Consequences of peptic ulcer:

Most of the types of ulcers get better with proper treatment. But for this, the patient has to follow many rules and regulations and take the right dose of medicine at the right time.  However, sometimes ulcers do not heal because of poor food habits, regular taking of tobacco if you do not follow the medications, or uncontrolled use of painkillers.

Some types of users also have no cure. They are known as refractory ulcers. Usually, if there is an excess acid secretion in the stomach, if Helicobacter pylori are not eliminated even after the application of drugs, and if there is stomach cancer or chronic disease, the ulcer cannot be cured.

Ulcer Prevention:

To prevent ulcer-related complications you need to maintain some rules and habits like…

  • Avoid tobacco and tobacco products. 
  • Eat green vegetables and fibrous food. 
  • Eat fruits that are very good for killing the bacteria of ulcers and help with healing stomach ulcers like apples, blueberries, strawberries, cherries, raspberries, blackberries, and bell peppers.
  • Fatty foods and fast food items, fried, greasy, acidic, or spicy food items, Dairy food items, caffeine, and processed food should be avoided. 
  • Alcoholic soft drinks and energy drinks should be avoided.
  • Use aspirin as the treatment of ulcers or follow the instructions of NSAIDs.
  • Avoid infections through cleanliness.  Painkillers should not be taken at that time. 
  • Do not eat irregularly and chew food well.
  • Drink lots of water.

There are different types of ulcers we are facing these days. It is a curable health issue if you are aware of this disease and regularly follow up with a good Gastroenterologist. Prevention is better than cure so if you lead a healthy lifestyle you can cure this disease very easily But if a peptic ulcer occurs then all the rules and regulations should be followed, and the medicine should be taken properly and according to time.

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